'इस्लाम' के बारे में श्री सर्वपल्लि राधाकृष्णन जी के विचार Teacher's day

कल टीचर्स डे था. हमारे बच्चे बहुत खुश थे कि आज स्कूल में पार्टी होगी. वे नमकीन, बिस्किट और ठंडे मशरूब (कोल्ड ड्रिंक्स) की बोतलें लेकर अपने स्कूल की तरफ चल दिये. आज उनके क़दम बड़े उत्साह से उठ रहे थे. वे स्कूल से लौटे तो उनके ग्रीटिंग कार्ड्स पर टीचर्स के दस्तख़त और दुआएँ दर्ज तीन. उनमें एक टीचर ने सर्वपल्लि राधाकृष्णन जी का नाम लिख कर बताया था कि वह 5 सितंबर 1888 को पैदा हुए थे इसलिये 5 सितंबर को शिक्षक दिवस मनाया जाता है. वह 1962 से 1967 तक भारत के दूसरे राष्ट्रपति भी रहे हैं. उन्हें भारत में एक आदर्श शिक्षक के रूप में देखा गया लेकिन उनकी शिक्षाओं को भुला दिया गय है जबकि आज उनके विचारों की प्रासंगिकता पहले से ज़्यादा है. आज हिन्दुस्तान में 'हिन्दू धर्म और इस्लाम' का मुद्दा चर्चा का विषय है. इस विषय पर उनके विचार आज भी हमारे लिये मायने रखते हैं.
देखिये श्री दुलीचन्द्र जैन जी का लेख :
Introduction:
During an informal discussion at a meeting of the Jain Study Circle, a participant pointed out that all religions have essentially the same code of ethics. On hearing this, another participant remarked: what about Islam and forgiveness? This is similar to questioning the teaching of non-possessiveness (APARIGRAH) of the Jain religion by looking at the activities of Jain individuals and institutions. Siddhantacharya Pt. Phool Chandra Shastri has observed, (2) "The community of self-reliants (SHRAMAN SANGH) has discarded the concept of non-possessiveness (APARIGRAHA). ... If the self-reliant (SHRAMAN) monks and their disciples realize that promoting improper practices does not constitute religion and that religion involves discarding such practices, then it will be possible to reverse this trend."
Religious tolerance is rooted in the Jain concept of rationalism. However, the comment about Islam and forgiveness implies a total disregard for rationalism and tolerance.
Jain scriptures teach us to be pragmatic. SUTRAKRITAANG, the second earliest Jain scripture (second century B.C.), states: (3)
SAYAM SAYAM PASAMSAMTA, GARAHANTA PARAM VAYAM |
JE U TATTH VIYUSSANTI, SAMSAARAM TE VIYUSSIYA |
Those who praise their own faith, disparage their opponents', and possess malice against them will remain confined to the cycle of birth and death.
Rationalism entails rational perception, rational knowledge and rational conduct. Ascertaining reality through study and observation without any preconceived notions is rational perception. This is the way to acquire rational knowledge. Actions guided by rational perception and rational knowledge constitute rational conduct. We need to adopt such rational approach to discern the true spirit of any religion. In this context, it is important to remember the following:
"As is usual, a mantle of aberrations, myths and legends envelops the fundamental tenets of Jainism. For this reason, an individual has to look deep to get a glimpse of the pristine spirit of Jainism. Further, an individual has the liberty to select what conforms to his/her experience and common sense."(4)
Such insightful study will lead us to believe that the virtues taught by all religions are similar in essence. Dr. Radhakrishnan writes, (5) "When we take our stand on the 'experience' side of religion, we realize that the truly religious men of all faiths are nearer each other than they imagine."
We should adopt such approach to appraise the tenets of Islam and all other religions.
Teachings of Islam: (6)
Like all religions, Islam is a religion that emphasizes truth and virtuous conduct. Dr. Radhakrishnan states, (7) "With him (Mohammad), religion was an effort to know the truth and live it. ... Mohammad ... lays down no restrictions likely to keep enchained the conscience of advancing humanity." Dr. Radhakrishnan continues, (8) "The Prophet did not inculcate the subjection of human reason to blind authority. A religion which is so strictly limited by common sense on all sides cannot be made to support the inhuman practices of today." This concept is akin to the Jain concept of rationalism.
Islam, the religion founded by Prophet Mohammed, means submission to the will of God. It is a religion of self-surrender, acceptance of the revelations and following the commands of God. Islam establishes a universal brotherhood of man. Islam teaches that "No man is a true believer unless he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself. God will not be affectionate to that man who is not affectionate to God's creatures. He is the most favored of God from whom the greatest good comes to His creatures."
In Islam, abuse, anger, avarice, back-biting, blood-shedding, bribery, dishonesty, drinking, envy, flattery, greed, hypocrisy, lying, miserliness, pride, suicide, violence, wickedness, warfare, etc., are deprecated and virtues such as brotherhood, charity, cleanliness, chastity, forgiveness, friendship, gratitude, humility, justice, kindness, love, mercy, moderation, modesty, purity of heart, righteousness, truth and trust are enjoined. (9)
The Qur'an states: (10) Those who abstain from vanities and the indulgence of their passions, give alms, offer prayers, and tend well their trusts and their covenants, they shall be the heirs of eternal happiness.
Forced Conversions and Islam:
Dr. Radhakrishnan has stated, (11) "It is not possible for a thinker like Mohammad to advocate forced conversions. We cannot compel men to change their beliefs." The following Ayat from the Qur'an supports this fact:
"Let there be no compulsion in religion." (Surah II, Ayat 256)
Further, the following Surah CIX, entitled 'The Unbelievers' presents the crescendo of religious tolerance:
1. Say: O unbelievers!
2. I do not serve that which you serve,
3. Nor do you serve Him Whom I serve:
4. Nor am I going to serve that which you serve,
5. Nor are you going to serve Him Whom I serve:
6. You shall have your religion and I shall have my religion.
Forgiveness and Islam:
The Qur'an contains the following Ayats on forgiveness among others:
Take to forgiveness and enjoin good and turn aside from the ignorant.
(Surah VII, Ayat 199)
And those who shun the great sins and indecencies, and whenever they are angry they forgive.
And the recompense of evil is punishment like it, but whoever forgives and amends, he shall have his reward from Allah; surely He does not love the unjust.
And whoever is patient and forgiving, these most surely are actions due to courage.
(Surah XLII, Ayats 37, 40, 43)
One is responsible for one's deeds:
The following Ayat from the Qur'an emphasizes the fact that one is responsible for one's thoughts and actions:
Say: O people! indeed there has come to you the truth from your Lord, therefore whoever goes aright, he goes aright for the good of his own soul, and whoever goes astray, he goes astray only to the detriment of it, and I am not a custodian over you. (Surah X, Ayats 108)
Genuine Religious Tolerance:
Dr. Radhakrishnan summarizes, (12) "We must also learn to democratize our institutions and do away with the wrangling creeds, unintelligible dogmas and oppressive institutions under which the soul of man is literally crushed. Both Islam and Hinduism at their best teach that true religion is to serve God in truth and purity and obey His laws reverently in all the affairs of life."
We Jains should follow the advice of this great Indian thinker of modern times.
Footnotes:
1. For similar articles on Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism, please see
'Hinduism: In All Aspects' by Anisha Tandon, JSC, April 1983;
'An Introduction To Buddhism' by Dr. Chandrakant P. Shah, JSC, July 1996;
'A Religious Song Of Guru Nanak', JSC, April 1991;
'Some Aspects of Indian Religions and Philosophy' by Dr. Jagdish Chandra Jain, JSC, April 1999. Back up
2. Hindi exposition of TATTVAARTHA SUTRA, page 336. Back up
3. SUTRAKRITAANG, Book 1, lecture 1, chapter 2, verse 23. Back up
4. Jainism: An Introduction (Reality Based Ethics) by Duli Chandra Jain,included in "Religious Ethics: A Sourcebook", edited by Dr. Arthur B. Dobrin, published by Hindi Granth Karyalaya, Mumbai, 2004.Back up
5. Islam and Indian Thought, included in 'The Heart of Hindustan' by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, published by G. A. Natesan & Co., Madras, 1945, page 57. Back up
6. Based on "Glimpses of World Religions" published by Jaico Publishing House, Bombay, 1983, pages 187-188. Back up
7. The Heart of Hindustan, page 56. Back up
8. The Heart of Hindustan, page 67. Back up
9. It is time for us, including those of us who boast of being progressive, enlightened and self-righteous, to examine our conduct in the light of these universal virtues that are common to all religions. Back up
10. The Qur'an, translated by M. H. Shakir, published by Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an, Inc., Elmhurst NY 2003, Surah XXIII, Ayats 8-11. Back up
11. The Heart of Hindustan, page 61. Back up
12. The Heart of Hindustan, page 72. Back up
Source: http://www.jainstudy.org/jsc7.05-islam.htm
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